References For Forgiveness from a Psychodynamic Understanding

 recommended by Paula Hamm, Psychoanalyst




Abraham, K. (1925). Psychoanalytical notes on Coue's system of self mastery. In Clinical Papers and Essays on Psycho-Analysis. London: Hogarth, 1955, pp. 306-327.

Akhtar, S. (1991). Three fantasies related to unresolved separation-individuation: a less recognized aspect of severe character pathology. In Beyond the Symbiotic Orbit: Advances in Separation-Individuation Theory—Essays in Honor of Selma Kramer, M.D., ed. S. Akhtar & H. Parens. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press, pp. 261-284.

Akhtar, S. (1992). Tethers, orbits, and invisible fences: clinical, developmental, sociocultural, and technical aspects of optimal distance. In When the Body Speaks: Psychological Meanings in Kinetic Clues, ed. S. Kramer & S. Akhtar. Northvale, NJ: Aronson, pp. 21-57.

Akhtar, S. (1994). Object constancy and adult psychopathology. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 75:441-455.

 Akhtar, S. (1996). "Someday …" and "if-only" fantasies: pathological optimism and inordinate nostalgia as related forms of idealization. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 44:723-753.

Akhtar, S. (1998). Turned to Light. Chicago, IL: Adams Press, p. 51.

Akhtar, S. (1999a). Inner Torment: Living Between Conflict and Fragmentation. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.

Akhtar, S. (1999b). The psychodynamic dimension of terrorism. Psychiat. Annals, 29:350-355.

Akhtar, S. (2000). From schisms through synthesis to informed oscillation: an attempt at integrating some diverse aspects of psychoanalytic technique. Psychoanal. Q., 69:265-288.

Altman, L. L. (1977). Some vicissitudes of love. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 23:35-52.

Barnland, D. C. & Yoshioko, M. (1990). Apologies: Japanese and American styles. Int. J. Intercultural Relations, 14:193-206.

Berliner, B. (1958). The role of object relations in moral masochism. Psychoanal. Q., 27:38-56.

Bion, W. (1957). Differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic personalities. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 38:266-275.

Blum, H. P. (1997). Clinical and developmental dimensions of hate. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 45:359-375.

Cairns, D. L. (1999). Representations of remorse and reparation in classical Greece. In Remorse and Reparation, ed. M. Cox. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 171-178.

Casement, P. (1991). Learning from the Patient. New York: Guilford.

Chase, D. (2000). Restorative justice: use of apologies in criminal law. Virginia Lawyers Weekly, February 21.

Chekhov, A. (1927). Death of a government clerk. In. Anton Chekhov: Early Short Stories 1883-1883, ed. S. Foote, trans. C. Garnet. New York: Modern Library.

Cherney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M. & Silk, M. B. (1995). The role of grunts in reconciling opponents and facilitating interactions among adult female baboons. Animal Behaviour, 50:249-257.

Cords, M. (1992). Post-conflict reunions and reconciliation in long-tailed macaques. Animal Behaviour, 44:57-61.

Darby, B. W. & Schlenker, B. R. (1982). Children's reactions to apologies. J. Personality and Social Psychol., 43:742-753.

Darby, B. W. & Schlenker, B. R. (1989). Children's reactions to transgressions: effects on the actor's apology, reputation, and remorse. Brit. J. Social Psychol., 28:353-364.

Deutsch, H. (1942). Some forms of emotional disturbance and their relationship to schizophrenia. Psychoanal. Q., 11:301-321.

De Waal, F. B. (1989). Peacemaking among Primates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

De Waal, F. B. & Aureli, F. (1986). Consolation, reconciliation, and a possible cognitive difference between macaques and chimpanzees. In Reaching into Thought, ed. A. E. Russon, K. A. Bard, & S. T. Parker. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 80-110.

De Waal, F. B. & Van Roosmalen, A. (1979). Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 5:55-66.

Durham, M. S. (1990). The therapist and the concept of revenge: the law of talion. J. Pastoral Care, 44:131-137.

Fairbairn, W. R. D. (1940). Schizoid factors in the personality. In An Object Relations Theory of Personality. New York: Basic Books, 1952, pp. 3-27.

Fenichel, O. (1945). The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York: Norton.

Fonagy, P. & Target, M. (1997). Attachment and reflective function: their role in self-organization. Devel. Psychol., 9:679-700.

Freud, S. (1910). A special type of object choice made by men. S.E., 11:163-175.

Freud, S. (1913). Totem and taboo. S.E., 13:1-162.

Freud, S. (1930). Civilization and its discontents. S.E., 21:57-145.

Galdston, R. (1987). The longest pleasure: a psychoanalytic study of hatred. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 68:371-378.

Gallagher, M. (2000). Prayer asks forgiveness for anti-Semitism. Philadelphia Inquirer, March 5, p. J-7.

Gartner, J. (1992). The capacity to forgive: an object relations perspective. In Object Relations Theary and Religion: Clinical Applications, ed. M. Finn & J. Gartner. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Gay, P. (1988). Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

Goldberg, A. (1987). The place of apology in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Int. Rev. Psycho-Anal., 14:409-422.

Grunert, U. (1979). The negative therapeutic reaction as a reactivation of a disturbed process of separation in the transference. Bull. European Psychoanal. Federation, 65:5-19.

Guttman, S. A., Jones R. L. & Parrish, S. M., eds. (1980). The Concordance to the Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall.

Harding, J. (1999). Remorse and rehabilitation. In Remorse and Reparation, ed. M. Cox. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 107-115.

Herman, J. (1992). Trauma and Recovery. New York: Basic Books.

Howell, N. (1996). Personal communication.

Hunter, R. (1978). Forgiveness, retaliation, and paranoid reactions. J. Canadian Psychiat. Assn., 23:267-273.

Jones, E. (1913). The God complex. In Essays in Applied Psychoanalysis. New York: Int. Univ. Press, 1964, pp. 244-265.

Jones, E. (1928). Fear, guilt, and hate. In Papers on Psychoanalysis. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1950.

Kafka, J. S. (1992). Multiple Realities. New York: Int. Univ. Press.

Kernberg, O. F. (1976). Object Relations Theory and Clinical Psychoanalysis. New York: Int. Univ. Press.

Kernberg, O. F. (1984). Severe Personality Disorders: Psychotherapeutic Strategies. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

Kernberg, O. F. (1989). The narcissistic personality disorder and the differential diagnosis of antisocial behavior. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12:533-570.

Kernberg, O. F. (1992). Aggression in Personality Disorders and Perversions. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

Kernberg, O. F. (1995). Love Relations: Normality and Pathology. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

Klein, M. (1937). Love, guilt, and reparation. In Love, Guilt, and Reparation, and Other Works. New York: Free Press, 1975, pp. 306-343.

Klein, M. (1948). Contributions to Psychoanalysis (1921-1945). London: Hogarth.

Kohut, H. (1971). The Analysis of the Self. New York: Int. Univ. Press.

Kohut, H. (1972). Thoughts on narcissism and narcissistic rage. Psychoanal. St. Child, 27:360-400. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

Kohut, H. (1977). Restoration of the Self. New York: Int. Univ. Press.

Levy, S. T. (1987). Therapeutic strategy and psychoanalysis. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 35:447-466.

Madanes, C. (1990). Sex, Love, and Violence: Strategies for Transformation. New York: Norton.

Mahler, M. S. (1975). On the current status of the infantile neurosis. In The Selected Papers of Margaret S. Mahler, Vol. 2. New York: Aronson, 1979, pp. 189-194.

Mahler, M. S., Pine, F. & Bergman, A. (1975). The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. New York: Basic Books.

Maimonides, M. (1200). Mishne Torah, trans. Touger. New York: Moznaim, 1989.

Mccullough, M. E., Worthington, E. L., & Rachal, K. C. (1997). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. J. Personality & Social Psychol., 73:321-336.

Mcmillen, D. L. & Helmreich, R. L. (1969). The effectieness of several types of ingratiation techniques following argument. Psychonomic Science, 15:207-208.

Melville, H. (1851). Moby-Dick: Or, the Whale. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1979.

Moses, R. (1999). Apology and reparation. Paper presented at the First Izmir Conference on Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis, Izmir, Turkey, October pp. 21-24.

Mosher, P. (1991). Title, Key Word, and Author Index to Psychoanalytic Journals: 1920-1990. New York: Amer. Psychoanal. Assn.

Nietzsche, F. (1905). Thus Spake Zarthustra. New York: Modern Library Series.

Nooteboom, C. (1980). Rituals. New York: Penguin.

Ohbuchi, K., Kameda, M. & Agarie, N. (1989). Apology as aggression control: its role in mediating appraisal and response to harm. J. Personality & Social Psychol., 56:219-227.

O'Malley, M. N. & Greenberg, J. (1993). Sex differences in restoring justice: the down payment effect. J. Research in Personality, 17:174-185.

Poland, W. (1975). Tact as a psychoanalytic function. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 56:155-161.

Potamianou, A. (1992). Un Bouclier dans L'Economie des Etats Limites L'Espoir. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Ren, R., Yan, K., Su, Y., Qi, H., Liang, B., Bao, W. & De Waal, F. B. M. (1991). The reconciliation behavior of golden monkeys (Rhinopiethecus roxellanae roxellanae) in small breeding groups. Primates, 32:321-327.

Rey, J. H. (1986). Reparation. J. Melanie Klein Society, 4:5-35.

Sanders, K. (1995). A behavioral study on forgiveness. Undergraduate senior thesis, Claremont McKenna College.

Scheper-Hughes, N. (1999). Undoing: social suffering and the politics of remorse. In Remorse and Reparation, ed. M. Cox. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 145-170.

Scher, S.J. & Darley, J. M. (1997). How effective are the things people say to apologize? Effects of the realization of the Apology Speech Act. J. Psycholinguistic Research, 26:127-140.

Searles, H. F. (1956). The psychodynamics of vengefulness. Psychiatry, 19:31-39.

Shengold, L. (1989). Soul Murder: The Effects of Childhood Abuse and Deprivation. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

Silk, J. B. (1998). Making amends: adaptive perspectives on conflict remediation in monkeys, apes, and humans. Human Nature, 9:341-368.

Silk, J. B., Cherney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. (1996). The form and function of post-conflict interactions between female baboons. Animal Behaviour, 52:259-268.

Socarides, C. (1966). On vengeance: the desire to "get even." J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 14:356-375.

Sohn, L. (1999). A defective capacity to feel sorrow. In Remorse and Reparation, ed. M. Cox. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 69-104.

Steiner, J. (1993). Psychic Retreats: Pathological Organizations in Psychotic, Neurotic and Borderline Patients. London: Routledge.

Tavuchis, N. (1991). Mea Culpa: A Sociology of Apology. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

Tutu, D. (1999). No Future without Forgiveness. New York: Doubleday.Volkan, V. D. (1997). Blood Lines: From Ethnic Price to Ethnic Terrorism. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux.

Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. (1998). New York: Merriam Webster.

Winnicott, D. W. (1947). Hate in the countertransference. In Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth, 1958, pp. 194-203.

Winnicott, D. W. (1960). Ego distortion in the terms of true and false self. In Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment. New York: Int. Univ. Press, pp. 140-152.

Winnicott, D. W. (1963). The development of the capacity for concern. Bull. Mennin. Clinic., 27:167-176.

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). Playing and Reality. New York: Basic Books.